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  • 社区医学论文 关于社区医学论文范文参考资料

    本论文可用于社区医学论文范文参考下载,社区医学相关论文写作参考研究。

    面向城乡社区医学专科临床医学专业教学改革和实践

    摘 要:为了培养适应21世纪的城乡社区基层医务人才,笔者学校对专科临床医学专业进行了新一轮教学改革.科学制定了人才培养方案和课程体系,优化了教学内容,改革了教学模式和教学评价系统,取得了明显成效,结果表明新的教学改革方案符合培养目标的要求.

    关键词:面向城乡社区 临床医学专业 教学改革

    课 题:课题系河北省高等教育重点教改项目,项目编号:2012G G037.

    当前我国医疗卫生体制和城乡社区卫生服务体系发生了重大变革,国家要求大力发展高等职业教育,培养更多适应基层医疗的实用型医学人才.为了培养适应21世纪的城乡社区基层医务人才,笔者学校自2013年以来对专科临床医学专业进行了新一轮教学改革.现将学校的改革研究和实践报告如下.

    一、科学制定人才培养方案和课程体系

    按照城乡社区卫生服务的岗位需要,新的培养目标应以疾病预防和健康促进为重点,培养能在城乡社区提供医疗、保健、预防、康复综合卫生服务的实用型医务人才.培养方案突出“宽口径、厚基础、重实践、强能力”的实用特色,着重加强“三种意识”“三种能力”“三项技能”的培养.“三种意识”即专业思想意识、服务农村意识和综合卫生服务意识;“三种能力”即健康教育能力、预防保健能力和卫生管理能力;“三项技能”即基本诊疗技术、基本护理技术和常用仪器操作技术.

    以服务为宗旨、以就业为导向.在课程设置中,把城乡社区常见病、多发病、慢性病、妇幼保健、计划生育、社区康复、健康教育等作为教学的重点,同时兼顾国家助理执业医师考试大纲的要求,对课程进行了必要的增设和删减,重组后分为四个模块:即通识教育课程模块、职业基础课程模块、职业能力课程模块和实践教学模块.通识教育课程模块按照国家规定的课程设置.职业基础课程模块主要包括正常人体结构和功能、异常人体结构和功能、病原微生物和免疫学等,对基础课程进行了整体优化.职业能力课程模块主要包括诊断学、内科学、外科学、妇产科学、儿科学、传染病学、急救医学、全科医学概论、皮肤性病学、五官科学、农村社区常见疾病防治和管理、中医学概论、预防医学、临床综合技能训练、常用护理技术、医学心理学、医学伦理学等.增设了适合工作实际的急救医学、全科医学概论、皮肤性病学、五官科学、城乡社区常见疾病防治和管理等课程;增加中医学概论和预防医学学时,从而增强学生对老年病、慢性病的防治和预防保健等方面知识的深入学习.增设临床综合技能训练、常用护理技术等实践课程,以加强临床技能训练,开设医学心理学、医学伦理学、卫生法规学等课程,以提升学生人文素养.实践教学模块即顶岗实习.

    二、优化教学内容

    医学专科教育的课程内容体系以突出针对性、应用性、实践性为原则,筛选和优化教学内容.基础课理论教学充分体现以应用为目的,根据城乡社区卫生服务的岗位要求和专业课的需要,删除基础课程中和基层社区卫生工作无太大关系的内容,整合、重组课程;实验课减少不必要的演示性、验证性实验,增加综合性、设计性、应用性强的实验,在实验内容上注重学生实验设计能力和实践动手能力的培养.专业课教学则注重针对性和实用性,教学内容突出运用理论知识解决实际问题和培养实践能力,强调对农村常见病、多发病的诊断和防治,避免各课程为了强调自身学科的系统性和完整性而导致课程之间的内容重复,增加临床实用操作实训课,如三大常规检查、心电图检查、快速末梢血糖测定、常见病的X线片拍摄等.

    三、改革教学模式

    教学中针对不同的教学内容改变单一的传统教学模式,实行1+2模式.在专业基础课教学中,教师可以根据教学任务设计问题或病案,运用案例式、讨论式、演示法、模拟法等方法开展教学,实施早期接触临床,让学生在第一学年到医院见习.同时利用课余时间,参加社区卫生实践,熟悉城乡社区卫生环境和城乡社区医生的工作程序.利用暑期,组织学生开展社会实践活动,利用所学知识进行医疗卫生调研、健康咨询宣教,逐步培养学生分析和解决问题的能力,提高学生的实际应用能力.第二、三学年专业课教学以工作描述为基础,基于工作过程重组教学内容,以患者来院诊疗的临床场景或病案分析方式导入授课的内容,使学生在仿真医院场景中,模拟临床医疗工作岗位,以“准医生”的角色和患者沟通,进行病史采集、体格检查、病案分析,并作出初步诊断,制订治疗方案.临床课以附属医院为基地进行临床现场教学,实行工学交替,采用课堂和实习地点一体化的“教、学、做”相结合的模式.利用学校丰富的实验、实训资源,加强各学科的基本技能、基本操作训练;引进了标准化病人技术,强化诊断学基本技能训练,让学生在仿真环境中操作练习.顶岗实习除在医院学习外,必须在城乡社区卫生服务机构实习两周,了解城乡社区常见病、多发病,学习城乡社区常见医疗问题的处理技巧,训练城乡社区卫生工作的各种能力,以利于学生毕业后尽快在城乡社区胜任工作.

    四、改革教学评价系统

    考核是检查教学效果和学生学习成绩的重要手段,为此制定出符合城乡社区临床医学专业的考核方案及考核评分标准.以国家执业(助理)医师考试的大纲、执业(助理)医师技能考试大纲为导向,设计考核内容,坚持理论和实践并重的原则,理论考核内容加大了临床思维题和辨析题的比例,以突出考核学生对知识的理解和应用能力,实践考核内容则加大了基本技能操作和实际应用方面的内容,删除以往验证性实验、实训的考核,以增强学生解决问题的能力.评价方式分知识考核和实践考核.知识考核采用形成性考核和终结性考核相结合(各占50%比例)来进行,形成性考核包括平时的学习态度、到课率、平时作业、实践技能操作等;终结性考核采用笔试进行.实践考核单列,并将实践技能的考核成绩纳入毕业考试总成绩.成绩不合格者补考或重修.

    五、改革成效

    新的教学改革方案在学校2013级三年制临床医学专业学生中开始实施.在实施过程中,教学管理部门对2013级740名学生实施了问卷调查.初步结果显示,学生对学过的职业基础课程和职业能力课程满意率为98%;在运用教学方法和手段,提高学生学习兴趣方面,学生满意率为100%;学生对实验、实训教学满意率为97%.经教学管理部门统计,学生各课程知识考核成绩及格率均达95%以上(以往各课程理论考核成绩及格率均在80%左右),实践技能考核合格率均达98%以上.通过对专业课教师、医院专家和基层医务工作者调查,认为新的教学改革方案符合培养目标的要求.从经济和社会效益上看,由于医学教育的目标同卫生服务需求紧密结合,不仅促进了教学内容和教学方法的改革,也有效地促进了学校对基层卫生资源的利用.

    在实施过程中,我们将不断探索,进一步修正和完善教学改革方案,为城乡社区培养更多实用型医务人才.

    参考文献:

    [1]卢东民,张 红,沈志坤.“校地共育”农村社区全科医学人才培养模式的构建[J].黑龙江高教研究,2011(11).

    [2]赵锡荣,程卫兵.农村社区医学教学模式实践和探讨[J]. 金华职业技术学院学报,2011(6).

    [3]涂明华,夏修龙.社区定向型医学教育的认识和实践[J].医学教育探索,2003(3).

    (作者单位:邢台医学高等专科学校)

    社区医学论文范文结:

    适合不知如何写社区医学方面的相关专业大学硕士和本科毕业论文以及关于医学杂志网论文开题报告范文和相关职称论文写作参考文献资料下载。

    1、社区医学杂志

    2、转化医学电子杂志

    3、国家级医学期刊有哪些

    4、中华物理医学和康复杂志

    5、临床和实验医学杂志

    6、全科医学杂志

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