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  • 文献综述论文 关于文献综述论文范文参考资料

    该文是关于文献综述论文范文,为你的论文写作提供相关论文资料参考。

    债券违约后续保全措施文献综述

    债券违约事件频发,虽然2017年发生频率有所下降但已成为债券市场常态.多数研究基于债券主体违约原因进行分析,本文对现有关于债券后续处置的文章进行综述,并对此提出建议.

    债券违约 后续处置

    引言

    我国银行间债券市场成立于1997年,至今债券市场规模不断扩大、参和主体增多,已形成以银行间市场为主、交易所市场为辅基本格局的债券市场,对我国金融市场未来的建设也将起到重要作用.但随着“刚性兑付”的神话在2014年被打破,更多的债券违约事件浮现.根据财汇金融大数据终端统计,截止2017年8月31日,违约债券数量共计148只,涉及违约主体83家,累计违约金额597.76亿元.我国债券市场违约事件涉及主体增多、违约金额加大、事件发生频繁.

    我国债券违约现状及趋势

    债券违约一般认为是债券发行主体不能按照事先达成的债券协议履行其义务的行为.本文定义债券违约是指债券发行主体不能按照事先达成的债券协议履行其偿债义务的行为,主要表现为未能在利息支付日全额支付利息和在到期日支付本金.

    债券违约的形成是由多方因素叠加而成的.宏观经济环境的下行和行业的活力不足使得企业面临经营压力,加上企业的负债情况本就不乐观,毛利率低、经营周期长、资金回笼缓慢等原因,使得 流难以保持稳定,导致其偿债能力下降,管理混乱无力回天导致企业资金链断裂,种种因素共同促成了债券违约的形成.

    债券违约的发生造成的影响波及甚广,对银行以及证券公司的资产质量产生了不好的影响;同时降低了承销商的积极性;对债券投资者也形成了一定的打击.张博( 2014)认为影响可波及到市场,由债市传递到股市,使市场受到重创,主力资金大幅流出.

    回顾2017年的金融大环境,可以发现是货币紧缩的,债券违约风险上升.张晓旭(2017)发现我国债券违约正在朝着数量增多、主体多元、风险增大的特点发展.发生主体从产能过剩行业逐渐蔓延到非过剩行业.债券风险事件也逐渐从私募向公募蔓延,从中小民营企业向大中型国企蔓延.

    后续保全措施现状

    随着债券违约事件的发生,有的学者敏锐的关注了债券违约事件已经发生的情况下应当如何进行后续保全的问题.

    国内债券市场相较于发达国家市场发展较慢,在处理债券违约这一问题上刘力一( 2017)通过对债券违约案例的研究发现我国债券违约后续处理一共有四种方式:第一种为通过外部融资缓解周转资金不足;第二种是股东、利益相关者干预,代偿违约;第三种是对违约主体的破产重组解决债务问题;最后一种是对违约方进行资产剥离的同时由第三方提供流动支持.刘晓琴( 2015)指出国外的债券市场相对于国内市场在债券违约的处理方式上有明显的不同.国内的处理方式主要是通过保证、抵押或者质押途径进行企业增信行为.而境外的处理方法主要有破产清算與债务重组两种主要解决办法.除此之外企业还可以申请延期债务偿还,企业可以用最小的成本得到最大的回收率.中信建投证券宏观和债券研究团队首席分析师黄文涛指出国外可行使“过错追责”的债券违约处理措施.“过错追责”是指如果其他所有处置措施都还不能满足债券持有人利益的情况下,在法律策略上,债券持有人可以寻找各方参和人在债券发行上市、销售等环节中的过错,通过主张过错赔偿的方式减少损失.

    郑雪晴( 2014)指出了我国债券违约发生按照交易制度安排会触发停牌条件,所有交易渠道将停止交易.对比香港债券市场和银行间债券市场的违约交易机制有所不同,这两者在发生债券违约后仍可进行交易,保证流通性,给了企业喘息的机会.

    陈思阳、王明吉( 2017)提出相较于在国外市场应用广泛的信用违约互换,这种信用衍生品可以在发生债券违约后由购买方将债券以面值转移给出售方以实现风险对冲.我国于2010年左右试图发展信用违约互换,但是当时存在“刚性兑付”而没有得到很好的发展.

    保全措施存在的问题

    王海泉、黄滨和姚林华( 2016)认为信息披露缺乏统一标准、及时性以及真实性;持有人会议制度的效力触发条件高、议案通过难导致效率不高;受托人制度职责不明且覆盖面有所欠缺; 机构不尽职,信用评级质量良莠不齐;交叉条款在国内设立太少以及基础法律薄弱、诉讼成本高导致司法救济制度有待完善.朱晓晨( 2015)表示债券投资者和发行公司订立的合同条文应受法律保护,可达到控制债券风险的目的.再者,应当在契约条款中事前保障性条款通过对发行公司投资生产、再融资、红利支付和公司业绩等方面进行约束,控制债券风险.最后债券监管机构应建立风险应对机制.

    债券违约已经开始并且已成为债券市场发展的正常现象,需要我们正面应对债券违约,在尽力避免、防范的同时也要及时止损,关注到债券违约发生后的保全措施,尽快恢复市场活力.应对债券违约宜疏不宜堵,应尽快规范债券违约的后续处理方式,在处理好违约企业的同时保护好债权人的利益.

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