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  • 格式条款论文 关于格式条款论文范文参考资料

    本论文主要论述了格式条款论文范文相关的参考文献,对您的论文写作有参考作用。

    消费者合同格式条款法律规制

    摘 要:本文研究之动因在于格式条款之现实必要性与司法之困境之矛盾与悖论.本文在汲取前人研究成果和研究方法的基础上,结合了生活中的具体案例,从理论和实践两个方面探究消费者合同中的格式条款.

    关键词:格式条款;消费者合同;域外借鉴

    就格式条款的优点来说,最重要的就是其提高交易效率,节约缔约的时间和费用.格式条款不考虑相对人的个人因素,对任何人都是用同样的交易条件.这大大节约了缔约过程中的时间、精力和社会成本,加速了交易的进行.格式条款尽管有积极作用,但其对社会公正价值的负面影响也日趋严重,不容忽视.首先,在格式合同关系中,合同相对人的契约自由受到限制.第二,格式条款的制定者有制定有利于自己的条款的倾向.最后,格式条款对风险的分配不尽合理.根据合同法的理念,风险的承担要根据当事人的责任大小来确定,而不能讲风险完全置于一方,另一方根本不承担责任.但格式条款的制定者则倾向于讲更多的风险置于相对人一方.

    因此,采用格式条款的企业在预先制定合同时,总是以追求自己利益的最大化为目标,几乎很少考虑或完全不考虑消费者的利益,这实际上是社会优势者对社会弱者的强制甚至是压迫.

    一、我国对消费者合同格式条款的规范

    格式条款使得合同关系已经不能仅限于私法规制的范畴.从理论上看,“经济人”、“平等人”的假设已经不能适应时代的需求.由于相对人之间的平等性兼具不平等性,契约关系正向新的身份关系过渡,这种新的身份关系正是强势主体和弱势主体之间的不平等的關系.因此,原本的利益结构被打破,新的社会利益协调必须考虑到弱势群体的保护.而消费关系正属于这种新的关系的范畴.本段落旨在从我国的法律出发,研究我国对消费者合同中格式条款的规范.

    对于《合同法》第39条对于这一条订入规则的理解,主要存在以下几个问题:

    1.提请相对人注意的范围

    “采取合理的方式提请对方注意免除或者限制其责任的条款”.所以,提请格式条款相对人注意的格式条款仅限于免责和限制责任条款?笔者认为,这种假设不仅合理.因为此种说明和注意义务仅限于“重要的内容”,这一点在新的《消费者权益保护法》中已经得到了体现.这种“重要的内容”应当以社会通常观念作为考量之因素.

    2.合理方式的理解

    根据《合同法解释(二)》第6条第一款中所谓“足以引起对方注意”究竟应当达到什么程度,在此处并无具体之规则.规则基本源于实务与实践.

    3.格式条款的订入是否应当经过相对人的同意

    这在法条中没有体现.主要原因是立法时仍然对格式条款的法律性质的认识不清.上文已经论述过了格式条款的特殊的“合同论”.因此,作为合同成立的方式,如果说合同成立一栋房屋,那么双方的合意是的一扇大门.不经相对人的同意就允许危险的“格式条款”的闯入是危险的.因此,有观点认为,应当在《合同法》第39条第1款中加入“经对方同意,格式条款订入合同.”

    4.说明义务的履行是否需要消费者主张

    说明义务的发生以“对方要求”为前提,如果对方未提出明确要求,格式条款的提供者只有提请注意之义务,并无就“免除或者限制其责任的条款”的说明义务.从保护格式条款的接受方权益角度观察,这一规定显然不尽合理.此处不妨借鉴保险法中的观点,《保险法》直接赋予保险人就免责条款的无条件说明义务,即要求保险人主动释明.因此,源于此特殊性和条件,在探求真意的同时,应当赋予其客观、合理的标准.

    根据《合同法》第41条规定,“如果格式条款有两种或两种以上解释的,应当作出不利于提供格式条款一方的解释.格式条款和非格式条款不一致的,应当采用非格式条款.”因此,合同法中主要提出了三种解释方法:通常理解原则、制定人不利原则和个别约定优先原则.

    1.通常理解原则

    即要求以通常人之认识标准作为解释之原则.该标准要求并不单独考虑个案之特性,而是综合的、普遍的考虑有可能普遍适用之对象之可能理解,这一点尤其对于一些行业用语、特殊文句有很大的适用意义.

    2.制定人不利原则

    该规则源于罗马法法谚“书面文件应当作出不利于丁立人的解释”.由于条款的使用人有很大的可能极力通过格式条款减免自己的责任,因此这一解释规则对格式条款的解释尤为重要.例如:英国的判例Houghtonv.trafalgarinsurance就很好的诠释了这种解释方法.

    3.个别约定优先原则

    当格式条款与非格式条款在形式上共存且互相排斥时,对格式条款和非格式条款所涉及的事项,此时就应当依据个别约定有限原则进行解释,以确定该事项的约定内容.但是,有一种特殊的情形不得不被考虑,即格式条款优于个别条款,格式条款人知情但格式条款的相对人却不知情的情况应当如何处理之悖论.笔者认为,根据诚信原则以及基于格式条款的使用人在订立合同时所应当向相对人提供充分的信息的义务,应当将这种原则解释为限定在个别条款优于格式条款的范围内.

    从格式条款的效力上《合同法》第40条规定上看,一方面,格式条款适用一般合同效力的规则,即第52条与第53条.另一方面,列举了三种情形亦无效.除此之外,违反《民法通则》基本原则的格式条款,例如:诚实信用原则、显失公平原则、平等互利原则、违背如公序良俗原则等,当属无效.这里,可以参照韩国的《约款规制法》第6条的规定加以理解:“违反诚实信用原则而有失公正性的约款最终无效.”

    二、对我国消费者合同中格式条款的完善

    1.制定单行法

    随着理念的进步、时代的要求以及立法水平的提高,我国对消费者合同法体系的完善的呼声越来越高.虽然我国当前仍未在立法中明确提出“消费者合同法”的理念,但不难想到,所谓“消费者合同法”,在我国即是规制经营者与消费者之间的交易,并以格式条款的规制为核心之法律.

    对于消费者合同法的立法形式,有观点认为应当制定格式条款的单行法;另有观点认为,应在我国的民法典或者《合同法》中对格式条单独设置章节予以规制.

    笔者分析认为,《合同法》是体现比较先进之民法理念之法律,并且通过司法解释与司法实践进行了比较好的衔接,因此对修法,国内尚未形成统一的认识.对于民法典的制定,仍然任重而道远,受法律体系和立法水平的约束,在短时间内仍难以达致现实.因此,制定单行的格式条款特别法,是当前比较好的选择.

    2.设置事前审查机构

    很多国家倡导市场完善性的消费者保护观和信息模式型和保护模式型的消费者保护观,提倡尽量通过司法进行保护.但是在我国的特殊的国情下,并不能一概而论的否认行政手段而采取完全的司法手段.一方面,我国当前的消费者问题频发,但是消费者的维权意识具有很大的地域差异.我国的格式条款的损害具有数众性、小额性的特点,传统的纠纷解决观念和诉讼成本的高昂领受害者望而却步.除此之外,团体诉讼制度仍然没有健全.即是通过诉讼对格式条款进行了矫正,矫正仍然只局限于特定案件,无法对类似的案件产生约束力.另一方面,我国对消费者的保护以政府主导居多,行政规制的理念仍然根深蒂固,消费者自发性的运动仍然是少数.

    因此,在我国有必要建立类似于韩国的事前审查机构,进行格式条款的事前审查.

    参考文献:

    [1]王利明著.合同法研究.中国人民大学出版社2002年版.

    [2]崔吉子著.东亚消费者合同法比较研究.北京大学出版社2013年版.

    作者简介:孙文斌(1991- ),男,江苏徐州人,华东政法大学社会发展学院硕士研究生,研究方向:劳动法学

    格式条款论文范文结:

    关于格式条款方面的的相关大学硕士和相关本科毕业论文以及相关格式条款无效的情形论文开题报告范文和职称论文写作参考文献资料下载。

    1、职称论文格式

    2、英文参考文献格式举例

    3、大学生毕业论文格式

    4、论文的格式模板

    5、普通论文格式

    6、论文基本格式

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