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  • 法律经济学论文 关于法律经济学论文范文参考资料

    本论文为您写法律经济学毕业论文范文和职称论文提供相关论文参考文献,可免费下载。

    格式合同法律经济学分析

    摘 要:随着商品经济的快速发展,格式合同被广泛应用于经济交往之中.然而,格式合同在方便人们交易的同时却与传统契约自由的价值理念发生了冲突,损害了合同订立过程中处于弱势地位一方的利益,为了维护社会的公平正义,对格式合同进行法律规制变得尤为必要.从法经济学的视角对格式合同进行分析,主要运用效率原则、交易成本等经济学的理论来分析其存在的利与弊,并对如何规避其负面效应提出了一些简单的思路.

    关键词:格式合同;效率;交易成本;法律规制

    中图分类号:D9 文献标识码:A doi:10.19311/j.cnki.16723198.2018.05.071

    格式合同的出现有着深刻的社会原因和时代背景,在简单的商品交换时代,生产力不发达,人们之间的交易以契约自由为理念,合同的订立由当事人自由协商;资本主义生产方式确立以后,生产力得到提高,商品经济快速发展,规模经济出现,于是格式合同应运而生,最早出现在19世纪的保险业和铁路运输业,20世纪20年代又广泛应用于公用事业,到了20世纪40年代以后,格式合同在商业领域盛行,如今已经渗透到我们社会经济生活的各个角落.

    1 格式合同的效率分析

    随着市场经济的发展,社会生活中的各行各业都在追求效率,人们都设法用最少的投入取得最大的收益,以实现利益的最大化,尤其是在交易特别频繁的商品、服务和运输等行业,为追求效率的需要,不可能与每个消费者都逐一在自由协商的基础上订立合同.格式合同的应用,使得合同的内容简化、程序简明,在合同双方缔约的过程中,节省了订立的时间,提高了效率,降低了交易成本,适应了现代商业发展的要求.

    1.1 效率是正义的体现

    在某种程度上,效率就是正义的体现,那么何为正义?自古以来就是学者们热议的话题,真可谓是“仁者见仁,智者见智”,古希腊哲学家柏拉图在《理想国》一书中,设计了一幅正义之邦的图景,他认为正义就是使得人们各得其所,不同角色的人能够在自己的岗位上各司其职,做好自己的事情,而不互相干涉,这便是正义.亚里士多德认为,正义与公平、公正等概念密切相关而属于同一序列,正义就是一种实质上的平等,在法律上,每个公民都应该得到一视同仁的对待,平等是正义的基本含义,社会资源要平等的来分配,不能对人们有差别的对待.美国学者约翰·罗尔斯,他在《正义论》中对正义的阐述,体现了将自由和平等这两种价值相结合的思想,他认为要实现正义既要保证自由又要体现平等,只有把二者结合起来才能最终实现正义.关于对正义的理解,学者们的观点不胜枚举,然而,在对正义这个问题的分析上,作为法经济学的主要代表人物之一的美国著名的法学家波斯纳却认为正义除了分配上的公平正义之外,效率是它的另一个层面的涵义,他认为效率其实就是正义的一个表现,法律制度内不是所有的东西都是合理的,正义和效率并不矛盾.

    纵观格式合同产生与发展的历史沿革,我们不难发现伴随着商业贸易的发展,格式合同的广泛应用,因其高效便利的特点而适应了现代经济快速发展的需要.但是,任何事物都有两面性,格式合同也不例外,它在促进商品经济发展的同时也带来了一些负面的影响.在订立格式合同的过程中,由于合同双方的经济实力往往不对等,处于弱势地位的消费者被迫接受强势一方制定的对其不利的条款,双方很难在平等协商的基础上订立合同,于是也就不存在合同订立过程中的反复磋商与讨价还价,由此看来,格式合同虽然在表面上似乎是交易双方自愿订立的,然而,在本质上却是与契约自由的精神相违背的.

    1.2 效率分析的两个工具

    在经济学研究中,帕累托改进和卡尔多—希克斯效率理论是效率分析最常用的两个工具.在经济学家的眼里,社会资源是稀缺的,如何将稀缺的资源做到有效率的配置,是他们关心的问题.那么如何将资源合理配置才能达到社会福利的最大呢?社会福利取决于每个人的效用,而效用又有人际间难以比较的困扰,所以我们无法单纯的将社会中每个人的效用加总起来,然后进行比较.为了解决这个问题,意大利经济学家帕累托提出了一种决定社会福利最大化的概念,即帕累托效率标准.资源配置达到帕累托最优状态是经济剩余可达到最大,而如果资源配置还没有达到最优,就表示通過改变配置即可增进效率,因此,帕累托改进理论便很好的说明了这一点,即如果情况变动以后,至少可使一个人的好处增加而他人不会受损,则这种变动就是有效率的.

    从契约自由基础上订立的自由合同到格式合同,按照法经济学对于效率的分析,我们可以看到,格式合同提高了整个社会的效率,有利于经济的发展,从国家和社会的层面上看是有益的.但是格式合同忽视了传统民法上所讲究的契约自由、公平交易的理念,这不利于体现法律的正义性价值.因此,在市场经济中,我们在认可和使用格式合同的同时,必须采取一定的措施规制格式合同的滥用,既然追求经济交往中的效率,又不能忽视正义的价值理念.

    2 格式合同的交易成本分析

    2.1 交易成本概念的提出

    交易成本(Transaction Costs)又称交易费用,最早由美国经济学家罗纳德·科斯提出.他在《企业的性质》一文中认为交易成本是“通过价格机制组织生产的,最明显的成本,就是所有发现相对价格的成本”、“市场上发生的每一笔交易的谈判和签约的费用”及利用价格机制存在的其他方面的成本.交易成本是一个含义丰富的概念,广义的交易成本常被比喻为经济世界中的摩擦力,用以指称全部社会“经济制度的运行费用”具体是指协商谈判和履行协议所需的各种资源的使用,包括制定谈判策略所需信息的成本、谈判所花的时间以及防止各方欺骗行为的成本.

    2.2 格式合同存在的必然性

    在社会经济交往之中,格式合同之所以会得到广泛应用,是因为其存在许多优点.第一,格式合同降低了缔约成本.在自由合同的情况下,订立合同的双方当事人,可以在自愿、平等、公平的基础之上进行谈判协商,但是对于消费者来说,要想使自己在签约过程中拥有和交易相对方相对平等的地位,就需要花费大量的时间去搜集有关商品或者服务的信息,这就在无形中增加了消费者的交易成本.第二,格式合同降低了履约成本,所谓的履约成本是指在合同履行过程中,需要双方承担互相行使权利义务所付出的费用、风险.通常情况下,双方订立的合同期限越长,风险也往往越大,合同的主体越大,风险也越大.在自由合同下,交易双方无法预测将会发生的违约风险;然而,在格式合同下,双方在签订合同时,在合同中已经写明了违约条款,这样就减少了因缺乏预测性而发生的更多不必要的交易成本,从而在一定程度上降低了交易成本.第三,格式合同降低了合同双方可能会发生的救济成本.当一方违约时,另一方可能会采用协商、调解、仲裁、诉讼等手段来维护自己的合法权益,这些都是救济成本.然而,在双方签订了格式合同之后,一般会在合同条款中约定违约时的救济措施,从而将会极大的减少交易的成本.

    法律经济学论文范文结:

    关于对写作法律经济学论文范文与课题研究的大学硕士、相关本科毕业论文法律经济学就业论文开题报告范文和相关文献综述及职称论文参考文献资料下载有帮助。

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