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  • 格式条款论文 关于格式条款论文范文参考资料

    本论文为您写格式条款毕业论文范文和职称论文提供相关论文参考文献,可免费下载。

    银行格式条款法律规制

    摘 要:格式条款在电信、银行、保险等公共服务性行业中应用广泛,有效地简化了业务程序,降低了交易成本,方便了金融消费者.在实践中,比如在银行业,格式条款不规范的应用无形中侵害了消费者的权益.在新的《消费者权益保护法》实施后,如何更加合理地应用格式条款,规范地使用格式條款,切实保护金融消费者的合法权益值得关注.

    关键词:格式条款;法律规制

    由当事人一方于订立合同前拟定的、未与对方协商的条款称之为格式条款.该类条款是为了适应大量、频繁的重复易而形成的.根据其定义,格式条款具有三个特点:由一方预先拟定;为重复使用而拟定;在订立合同时双方不必协商、合同相对方只能同意或拒绝.

    目前,《合同法》及《消费者权益保护法》中为保证另一方当事人的合法权益,明确规定了格式条款订入合同后的效力.《合同法》第40条规定,出现以下几种情形时,认为条款无效:

    《合同法》第40条规定,符合第52条和第53条中7种情形之一的,或者存在提供格式条款一方免除其责任、加重对方责任、排除对方主要权利的条款无效.

    一、常见不合理的银行格式条款

    本文列举了多家金融机构的开户、开卡协议与信用卡合约这两类与社会公众密切相关的合同,并分析了其中侵害消费者合法权益的条款.

    (一)开户、开卡协议

    调查发现,多数银行的开户、开卡协议中主要存在以下侵犯消费者知情权、公平交易权的条款:

    1.单方行使合同变更权

    《合同法》规定,合同的变更必须经过当事人协调一致.但多数银行将变更权作为格式条款加以规定,比如:“甲方知悉并同意遵守XX行《XX卡章程》(包括此后所作的适当修改),履行本协议”,该条款实质是以格式条款的形式单方变更合同,排除了客户自由选择合同是否修改的权利,侵犯了消费者的自由选择权.

    2.挂失责任承担条款

    多数银行设置了免责条款,如:“如卡片遗失或被盗,应及时通过致电或乙方提供的其他途径办理临时挂失或到指定网点办理书面挂失.甲方不承担挂失有效期内发生的资金损失风险”,有的银行则表述为:“由消费者承担挂失生效前已发生的所有交易及挂失生效后发生的全部费用”.金融消费者在进行相关挂失后,银行理应通过自身的业务系统对消费者相关账户、进行临时冻结,如发生资金损失,银行显然负有相应的责任,却仍以格式条款来免除自身应负的责任.根据《合同法》规定,让消费者自行承担相应损失的条款,应认定为无效.

    3.预缴费用不予退还

    多数银行在其开户协议及相关卡的章程中规定了预缴费用不予退还条款,其中典型的有销户时已收取的账户管理费和信用卡年费,明显有违诚实信用和公平原则,在实践中,由于年费或账户管理费数额较小,多数消费者怠于行使自己的权利.

    (二)信用卡合约

    随着信用卡的用户覆盖率日益提高,在一些商业银行信用卡章程及领用合约中存在扩大收集范围、扩大信息使用范围的条款.某商业银行办理信用卡需要客户提供个人基本信息外,还要求提供贷款、对外担保等个人信贷交易信息及个人住房公积金、养老保险金缴存等非银行信用信息,并将上述信息的使用范围扩大到除信用卡办理之外的信贷审批、贷后管理、异议受理等多类银行业务.银行以格式条款的形式,取得了获取消费者多方面的授权,明显违反了收集正当、必要的原则.同时在的使用、保管过程中,并未建立相关的信息披露机制,故而消费者的隐私权在整个业务过程中保障性较低,个人金融信息始终存在一定的泄漏风险.这种情况同样存在于消费者办理信用卡提交的申请资料中,信用卡领用合约中关于申办资料的处理表述为:“无论核发卡片与否,申请资料均由发卡机构保留,不退还申请人.”客户提交的申请资料最终如何处理没有说明,载有客户详细甚至部分财产信息以及亲笔签名的资料无疑侵害了客户的隐私权.

    综合上述情况,银行合同中不公平、不合理的格式条款在侵害消费者权益的同时,也凸显了金融机构义务履行不到位的问题,使银行面临相关条款无效或适用不利解释原则的风险.

    二、规制银行格式条款的建议

    为规范银行业务合同中可能侵害消费者权益的相关格式条款,需要金融监管部门、金融机构和司法部门的多方合作.

    (一)细化格式条款的限制性和禁止性规定

    目前,我国在《合同法》《消费者权益保护法》中对银行业格式条款有所规制,但实践表明其规定过于简单,因此,有必要就如何确定不公平条款、免责或限制责任条款等具体问题,结合相关《民法》的诚实信用、公平原则作出进一步的完善,如明确格式条款订立过程中如何实现保护消费者利益、保障交易公平、诚实信用等基本原则,规定格式条款订入合同的规则,如涉及消费者的合同应以向消费者合理提示、作必要说明、消费者同意订立、异常条款不得订入为规则.同时,进一步细化格式条款的解释原则、效力,在法律制度层面规范银行格式条款的应用.

    (二)便利金融消费者诉讼

    《消费者权益保护法》第35条规定,“人民法院应当采取措施,方便消费者提起诉讼.”但实践中,诉讼程序不可避免的繁琐性与高成本在一定程度上降低了消费者寻求司法途径解决格式条款纠纷的意愿.因此,在审判此类案件时,应适当地以简易程序来减轻消费者的诉累,使消费者乐于通过诉讼解决相关争议,发挥司法对格式条款的规制作用.

    (三)强化金融机构的制度规范

    金融机构可以通过两个方面来强化、防控格式条款风险的责任.一方面,在制订合同文本时,参照相关建设合同文本的形式,在设置通用条款的同时,增加“填写条款”,由双方当事人就一些需特别约定的事项进行协商并填写,避免因格式条款产生的不利风险.另一方面,在格式合同使用过程中,金融机构要充分履行合理提示、告知义务,对重要的条款应当口头明示、说明,使消费者根据该提示做出选择.

    (四)加强消费者教育职能

    目前,《消费者权益保护法》第37条规定的的公益性职责中,并没有对其格式条款的监督职责予以明确,建议进一步明确.强化向公众普及格式条款辨别知识方面的职责,发挥在规制格式条款中的作用.

    参考文献:

    [1]陈涛.对《合同法》及其司法解释关于格式条款规制的再理解[J].齐齐哈尔大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2014(4):64-66.

    [2]青.金融消费者权益保护中的银行格式条款问题[D].西南政法大学,2012.

    格式条款论文范文结:

    关于对不知道怎么写格式条款论文范文课题研究的大学硕士、相关本科毕业论文格式条款论文开题报告范文和文献综述及职称论文的作为参考文献资料下载。

    1、职称论文格式

    2、英文参考文献格式举例

    3、大学生毕业论文格式

    4、论文的格式模板

    5、普通论文格式

    6、论文基本格式

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