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  • 坐标系论文 关于坐标系论文范文参考资料

    本论文主要论述了坐标系论文范文相关的参考文献,对您的论文写作有参考作用。

    不同坐标系下Mapinfo格式地理数据统一方案

    [摘 要] 针对基于Mapinfo平台不同坐标系下地理数据统一问题,通过对Mapinfo文件及坐标系转换分析和研究,借助EXCEL部分功能,设计了炼油区坐标系、化工区坐标系下的地理数据统一到市政坐标系下的实施方案,并选取炼油区、厂前区、化工区的道路层和铁路层地理数据验证了方案的可行性.

    [关键词] Mapinfo;坐标系;GIS

    doi : 10 . 3969 / j . issn . 1673 - 0194 . 2016. 19. 089

    [中图分类号] TB21;TP317.4 [文献标识码] A [文章编号] 1673 - 0194(2016)19- 0159- 03

    0 前 言

    自1994年引进地理信息系统(Geographic Information System,GIS)技术以来,企业在不同时期选取不同坐标系完成了炼油区、厂前区、福利区、化工区等四个区域地理数据的采集,并分别建立了以Mapinfo软件作为地理信息系统基础平台、以地下管网数据为核心、以地面对象数据为参照的二维地下管网地理信息系统.目前,各区域地理数据独立运行、独立管理、独立维护,主要应用于各区域.

    随着企业管理精细化、系统化、全局化等方面的要求及GIS在更多方面的应用需求,地理信息系统的区域应用急需提升到全局应用;经过不同区域地理信息系统建设和多年的地理数据维护,地理信息系统中基本上积累了企业主要管辖区域内所有地理数据,然而,系统的应用局限于各区域,地理数据的应用及解决的问题均有限;随着“数字工厂”、“数字矿区”建设的推进,各区域地理数据也需要形成整体;同时考虑到,企业地理信息系统和集团公司地理信息系统、市政“三维数字城市”系统的结合.因此,基于炼油区坐标系获取的炼油区厂前区地理数据和基于化工区坐标系获取的化工区地理数据统一到福利区地理数据所采用的1996城建坐标系统(简称市政坐标系)势在必行.

    1 企业地理数据现状

    企业地理数据主要由图形数据、属性数据组成,图形数据采用图层进行存储和管理,属性数据存储于属性数据结构表中,属性数据结构表随图层创建而创建,属性数据在数据结构表中存储空间随图形数据创建而自动分配,即图层上的图形数据位置发生变化时,其属性数据、属性数据表结构和图形数据的关联关系等不会发生改变,图形数据在图层上的位置由地理坐标值来确定.在Mapinfo中,图形数据的日常维护在图形窗口下进行且采用单层控制,即维护操作之前将需要编辑的图层置于可编辑状态,才能增加、删除图层上的图形对象,也能对图层上已有的单个图形对象进行位置坐标、样式等编辑,因此,图形窗口下数据维护不适合多图层图形数据批量维护.

    2 Mapinfo文件

    Mapinfo以图层为单位采用一组文件(*.TAB、*.DAT、*.MAP、*.ID、*.IND)对图层上的数据进行存储,同时也提供一组中间交换文件(*.MIF、*.MID)用来向外交换图层数据.经过分析和研究,图层文件无法进行编辑操作;中间交换文件MIF、MID文件可用记事本打开且可编辑,图形数据的批量维护可在MIF中完成.

    MIF由文件头和数据节两个区域组成,图形数据的地理坐标值在数据节中,数据节由多个图形对象函数组成,每个图形对象函数由函数标识、坐标值及参数组成,每个图形对象函数内均采用空格作为其分隔符,其坐标分布格式固定且在不同行中X和Y值对应分布,因此,借助EXCEL 2007可完成MIF文件数据节函数标识、函数参数的提取和坐标值批量转换.

    3 坐标系转换研究

    坐标系转换是从一种坐标系变换到另一种坐标系的过程,实际上,坐标系转换的过程就是转换参数的求解过程,通过建立两个坐标系之间一一对应关系来实现[1].炼油区坐标系、化工区坐标系和市政坐标系属于同一椭球体下的不同平面直角坐标系,因此,企业地理数据统一采用四参数法即可建立不同平面直角坐标系之间的转换关系.

    根据平面直角坐标系几何变换原理,从一个平面直角坐标系变换到另一平面直角坐标系,这一过程共产生了四个参数(X轴平移量、Y轴平移量、坐标轴旋转角度α和尺度因子m),至少需要两个公共点在不同坐标系的坐标才能解算出四个参数值.根据图1 两个不同平面直角坐标系关系示意图,通过数学推导即可得到式(1) 两个平面直角坐标系转换公式.

    4 不同坐标系地理数据统一方案

    4.1 三坐标系转换关系

    通过资料查找,有9个永久控制点有炼油区坐标和市政坐标,有15个永久控制点有市政坐标和化工区坐标,且每个控制点两组坐标中高程值均相同.经现场勘查,企业地理数据采集所依据的24个永久控制点均完好.在现场永久控制点上,采用GPS对资料上提供的三组坐标值分别进行检验,经检验24个永久控制点均未发生位移.从9个和15个永久控制点中各选两组坐标值分别建立炼油区坐标系、化工区坐标系和市政坐标系之间的转换关系.

    4.2 MIF文件数据节批量转换工具设计

    根据Mapinfo提供的Point、Line、Polyline、Region、Arc、Text、Rectangle、Rounded rectangle、Ellipse等9个图形对象函数中函数标识、坐标值及参数分布规律[2],借助EXCEL具有自动分列、提取表格内容、丰富的内置函数、下拉批量处理等功能,进行表头每一列函数设置,完成九类函数中坐标值转换、函数标识和参数提取,从而达到MIF文件数据节内容批量转换.

    4.3 地理数据统一流程

    基于以上的分析、研究和设计,不同坐标系下Mapinfo格式地理数据统一流程如图2所示.

    4.4 方案验证

    选取炼油区、厂前区、化工区地理信息系统中的道路层、铁路层数据作为验证数据,分别利用转换工具进行转换实施,将转换来的三区域道路层、铁路层数据和福利区道路层数据在同一窗口中进行叠加,四区域道路层、铁路层地理数据实现自动统一,且和实际地理分布一致,即方案可行.

    5 结 语

    经过对企业四大区域的道路层、铁路层地理数据统一到市政坐标系下的测试,炼油区坐标系、化工区坐标系下的地理数据统一到市政坐标方案可行,按照此方案对炼油区、化工区、厂前区地理数据进行转换实施,实现企业四大区域地理数据按照地理分布统一到市政坐标下,有效地解决了企业地理数据存在的“数据孤岛”问题,实现了不同区域地理数据之间的连通性,减少了数据的维护工作量,地理数据的应用从局部提升到全局,应用范围也不断扩大,同时为企业地理信息系统和集团公司地理信息系统、市政地理信息系统的集成奠定了基础.

    主要参考文献

    [1]张勇.平面四参数法GPS坐标转换技术的应用分析[J].城市勘测,2005(2):28-30.

    [2]赵从欣.基于MapInfo平台的mif/mid文件成图方法[J].四川测绘,2003,26(1):28-32.

    坐标系论文范文结:

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