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  • 方向论文 关于方向论文范文参考资料

    本文关于方向论文范文,可以做为相关论文参考文献,与写作提纲思路参考。

    药用植物病害鉴定方向毕业论文指导工作实践

    【摘 要】本文提出将“药用植物病害鉴定”作为学生的毕业论文方向,要求每位学生至少完成一种药用植物新病害的分离鉴定,并形成论文,在此过程中可以开展教学资源库的建设,还可以补充教学资源库的内容.

    【关键词】高职高专 植物保护专业毕业论文 指导

    【中图分类号】G 【文献标识码】A

    【文章编号】0450-9889(2017)11c-0154-02

    毕业设计(论文)是实现高等学校教育培养目标的重要教学环节,在培养大学生探求真理、强化社会意识、进行科学研究基本训练、提高综合实践能力和素质等方面具有不可替代的作用,是教育和生产劳动和社会实践相结合的重要体现,是培养大学生的创新能力、实践能力和创业精神的重要实践环节.毕业设计(论文)的质量是衡量高校教学水平的重要标志,是认证高校学生毕业资格的重要依据.

    为了落实学校关于毕业生毕业论文管理的相关规定,笔者于2016年秋学期开始,负责28位学生毕业论文的指导工作.笔者负责广西教育厅“药用植物病虫害防治”课程教学资源库建设项目,因此,将“药用植物病害鉴定”作为这些学生的毕业论文方向,要求每位学生至少完成一种药用植物新病害的分离鉴定,并形成论文.这样,在开展教学资源库建设的同时,又指导了学生的毕业论文,而学生高质量地完成了毕业论文,又可以补充教学资源库的内容,一举两得.

    然而,药用植物病害分离鉴定是一项十分细致严谨和非常有挑战性的工作.药用植物种类虽多,但病虫害研究资料少;许多病害尚未命名,虽然知道病害大体类别,但要正确命名绝非易事.因此需通过分离、接种、鉴定来确定病原,然后才能给病害命名.柯赫氏定律只有短短几行文字,要完成验证工作并不容易.各方面如果准备工作齐全,各环节衔接得好,短则二十至三十天就能完成;若中间环节出现脱节,一年半载也完成不了.所以在动手操作前必须通盘考虑时间安排、物品准备,严格按照规程操作.经过一年时间的努力,28位学生最终完成了毕业论文,所有参和毕业论文的学生也进一步提高了他们的实践技能和综合素质.现将指导工作总结如下:

    一、督促学生提前熟悉操作步骤和做好物品准备工作

    病原物分离鉴定有其相对固定的操作步骤,不能缺省其中一环,也不能颠三倒四.配制培养基、组织分离、菌种纯化、单孢分离、接种、再分离、孢子着生方式观察试验、孢子形态观察和大小测定、菌种活化等,所须物品必须提前准备,一一列出来.哪个环节需准备什么物品,先做什么后做什么,该灭菌的用具要提前做好安排,操作前再过目一遍.只有胸有成竹,才能少走弯路.

    例如,在首次作病原物鉴定专题培训的时候,老师强调技术环节时有的学生已不耐烦了,自以为简单,记得住,不做笔记,私下玩手机.而实际操作起来由于不熟悉步骤,往往忘记这忘记那,工具缺这缺那,或者药品准备不充分,频繁出入超净工作台和无菌室.这样就大大增加了病原物分离后的污染概率,导致病原物分离步骤的失败.

    二、提醒学生认真做好各个环节的记录工作

    病害的分离、接种、鉴定一定要有原始记录,它是论文数据第一手资料.有的实验物品是必须记录的.特别是用培养皿培养病菌,需写上时间、病菌名称及实验人员姓名.有时在实验室见到培养物,培养物却无任何记号,因为是集体实验室,多名学生同时在实验室工作,培养皿缺乏时,学生就把它处理了,到后来谁也讲不清是谁的错,引起种种误会.

    田间症状和病菌成长也要做好笔记.特别是病害的田间发生发展情况、病斑扩展过程、病斑大小、形状和色泽;病原物培养时菌落演变过程、温度和湿度、经历的时间、成长结果等,必须一一详尽记录,这样才能保证论文的科学和严谨性.

    三、提醒学生时刻注意要无菌操作

    病害鉴定中无菌操作是至关重要且非常苛刻的工作环节.有的学生理论上知晓但操作中却屡次出问题.

    首先,无菌操作概念淡薄.有的学生做病菌单孢分离时,需要用无菌镊子夹取盖玻片做插片,但多次尝试总是夹不起来,心急了就直接用手抓盖玻片,最后导致杂菌污染,不得不重做.

    其次,不注意实验动作的先后顺序.比如,先开鼓风机后熄灭紫外线灯,得讲究先后顺序,若次序颠倒了也容易引起污染.

    再次,不注意培养皿的密封工作.培养皿的密封薄膜只是不严格的暂时阻隔空气流动,要长时间保存菌种还是有欠缺的.由于搬运培养皿,薄膜磨擦破损时有发生,这样就做不到无菌密封的要求.

    最后,不经常搞卫生,在无菌室聚众闲聊、杂物堆放在超净工作台等都会增加污染机会.无菌操作不规范,单孢分离后的培养物,尚有两种或两种以上的生命体,因此不得不从头再来.经过细心的提醒和耐心的解释,提高了学生的无菌操作意识,病原物的分离步骤才得以顺利完成.

    四、要求学生用心做事

    在配制马铃薯培养基时,马铃薯应该切成玉米粒大小,而有的学生切成半个鸡蛋大小,颗粒太大,营养物质不易渗出,致使培养基呈透明果冻状,营养匮乏.所制的培养基有的凝固有的不凝固,究其原因是学生不考虑容器容量,或不按要求混匀.不凝固的培养基不能使用,浪费了时间,糟蹋了原料.质量好的马铃薯培养基应是混浊凝胶状,有一定硬度.到了高压灭菌,有的学生性子急,易犯毛病,排冷空气过猛,培养基冲出瓶口,引起杂菌污染.科研必须严谨,容不得马虎.

    经过学生多次失败及教师耐心分析和引导,学生慢慢体会到不管做任何事情,都要踏踏实实地做才有可能走向成功.

    五、要求学生做事兼顾前后,有始有终

    鉴定病害最好一气呵成,不中断.植物保护专业15级学生分离鉴定病害时,因要到校外实习,分离的病菌保管不善,种种原因,污染有之,失踪有之,菌物干缩老化有之,菌物色深变黑以为污染便丢弃的有之.如此一来,又得多做一项活化工作,活不了又得重新分离.例如有一学生分离野葵病害一种,都结出菌核了,需要验证是否真正病原菌,由于纯化以后就不闻不问,野葵生长周期过后又没有叶子接种了,后来不得不另觅题材.

    试验要有连贯性,试验进程最好自己可掌控.学校新建的中草药园极大地方便了学生分离鉴定接种病害,应该很好地利用本地资源.而有的学生偏偏到外地采集病害,分离纯化了菌种,计划做离体接种,要回原地采集健康叶子,这时才发现植物被主人铲除了,不得不中断试驗.所以一开始就要考虑试验必须在自己可掌控的范围内,或者和植物主人商量,配合实验,或在铲除植物前做好安排.

    接种试验最好远离干扰,确保正常观察.有的学生贪图观察方便,在路边田边做接种,套袋保湿.路人好奇,乱摸乱动,影响实验数据.我校中草药园是开放式园区,人员出入较多,应该有一定预见性.所以,做事要有整体规划,切实做好防采摘防干扰措施才能使实验顺利推进.

    六、利用现代信息技术及时了解学生的工作进程

    现代信息技术作为提高教学质量的重要手段,在推进教学资源共享中起到重要作用.构建在线交流平台使师生交流变得通畅、便捷.许多语言或电话难于表达清楚的东西,一张照片就可解决问题.建立相册,把试验照片及时上传保存,参考资料在群文件里共享,供学生随时取阅.各阶段工作任务和注意事项及时在平台上讨论,是师生相互了解实验进展的最佳途径.所以建好论文工作 群和微信群则可大大提高学生的工作效率和教师的指导效果.

    总之,通过长达一年的指导,所有学生都完成了一种药用植物病害的分离和鉴定,并能撰写成文,其中有8种病害是没有人分离和鉴定过的,为药用植物病害增加了新的记录.在丰富教学资源库内容的同时,使参和的学生再一次回顾学过的理论知识,提升了他们的实践技能和综合素质,为他们走向工作岗位打下了坚实的基础.

    【基金项目】广西教育科学“十三五”规划课题“‘药用植物病虫害防治’课程教学资源库建设和实践”(20178131)

    【作者简介】梁萍(1966一),女,广西博白人,广西农业职业技术学院副教授,研究方向:植物病害病原学和防治技术,植物病虫害教学.

    (责编 丁梦)

    方向论文范文结:

    关于方向方面的论文题目、论文提纲、方向定位指南针论文开题报告、文献综述、参考文献的相关大学硕士和本科毕业论文。

    1、英语专业文化方向论文

    2、英语专业论文方向

    3、英语专业翻译方向论文

    4、论文方向

    5、公共事业管理论文方向

    6、英语翻译方向论文选题

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