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  • 课程改革论文 关于课程改革论文范文参考资料

    该文是关于课程改革论文范文,为你的论文写作提供相关论文资料参考。

    本科院校转型职业教育和课程改革

    摘 要:部分本科院校转型职业教育已成为当前教育改革的重要突破口,而转型的核心问题是课程改革.就信用管理专业而方,拟转型高校课程改革的重点应是:以就业为导向,根据人才培养目标调整课程体系;外部协同开发实践课程和建设应用型教材;通过多种方式建设双师型教师队伍;整合社会资源,创新人才培养模式.

    关 键 词:本科转型;职业教育;课程改革;信用管理专业

    中图分类号:G642.0 文献标识码:A 文章编号:1006-3544(2014)03-0068-04

    大学生就业难和社会上技术技能人才短缺的矛盾,暴露了我国高等教育体系的人才培养与社会需要已严重脱节,要求我们必须深化高等教育改革,强化职业教育.其中引导部分本科院校转型为培养技术技能型人才的职业教育是实现这一改革目标的重要途径和措施.

    一、对本科转型职业教育的两个基本认识

    (一)本科院校转型职业教育是完善我国高等教育体系的客观要求

    1. 当前我国高等教育体系存在的主要问题是培养出太多有学历无技能的毕业生.自1999年高校扩招以来,我国高等教育由精英教育转向大众教育.根据教育部的统计数字计算,2012年我国高中生升入高等院校的比例已达到87%;同龄人中接受高等教育的比例则达到75.6%, 其中54.3%的高中毕业生进入本科院校,45.7%进入高职(专科)院校.与扩招相伴的是高校的快速发展和扩张,期间有600多所地方性和行业性高校由专科升为本科,专升本院校数量超过了原有的本科院校数量. 还有不少高校通过兼并其他高校向综合性大学发展. 许多高校在急剧扩张的过程中,人才培养目标与社会需求脱节,人才培养模式、人才培养质量等未受到应有的重视,导致培养出大量有学历无技能的毕业生, 造成当前高校毕业生就业难和市场上所需技术技能型人才供给不足的矛盾.

    2. 重构职业教育体系是教育改革的重要方向.我国现有教育体系的弊端主要是过于注重学历教育而对职业教育重视不够. 学历教育以提高全民素质为导向,侧重人的综合素质的培养;职业教育以学生就业为导向,侧重人的专业技能的培养.由于培养方向的偏差, 现在许多本科院校培养出的人才普遍缺乏技术技能.从发达国家来看,职业教育普遍受到高度重视,各国都构建了完整有效的职业教育体系.在职业教育最为发达和成功的德国,将近80%的年轻人是在接受职业教育而不是大学教育后走上工作岗位的,职业教育为“德国制造”提供了大量优秀的产业工人,并成为德国国家竞争力的重要源泉.我国也构建了一定规模的职业教育体系.根据教育部统计,2012年,我国中等职业教育招生人数占中等教育总招生人数的47.2%,高等职业(专科)教育招生人数占高等教育总招生人数的45.7%.但是,总的来说,当前我国职业教育的总体水平还比较低, 规模也远不足以满足市场需求.因此,重构职业教育体系将是教育改革的重要方向.

    3. 本科院校转型职业教育是当前教育改革的重要突破口.近些年我国适龄人中,有超过四成的人在本科院校学习.而我国的本科院校中很少是以就业为导向来培养人才的, 这导致培养出的学生整体技术技能差,与社会需求脱节.不少本科院校在发展的过程中,追求“高、大、上”,普遍以办研究型综合性的大学为目标. 事实上, 从整个社会来看,并不需要那么多的人去从事研究工作,也不是人人都适合从事研究工作.很多高校不切实际地追求“上档次”,实际上是浪费资源,耽误学生.

    (二)本科院校转型职业教育的核心问题是课程改革

    1. 拟转型职业教育的本科院校的人才培养模式必须根据就业目标做出相应调整.这些本科院校现在的人才培养目标一般是培养具有系统理论知识和一定实践能力的综合素质高的专门人才,采取理论教学为主,辅之以实践教学的人才培养模式.在整个学习过程中,学生主要是学习书本知识,很少有机会接触实际工作,实际操作技能和应用能力都比较差,对其就业往往造成了不良影响.一些本科院校转型职业教育后,人才培养定位要调整为以就业为导向,人才培养模式也要根据就业目标做出相应调整.调整的重点是要强调学生职业素质和职业技能的培养,把技术技能培养和综合素质培养结合起来.需要注意的是,职业教育与学历教育之间并不矛盾,许多企业都希望招到专业技能强综合素质又高的人才.总之,这种人才培养模式应有利于就业倾向明确的学生的发展,有利于满足社会对职业人才的需求.

    2. 本科转型职业教育的核心问题是课程改革.学生是通过课程来学习各种知识和技能的,人才培养模式的调整是通过课程改革来实现的,因此,本科转型职业教育的核心问题是课程改革.根据职业教育能力本位观,职业教育的核心是如何使学生具备从事某一职业所必需的实际能力.课程是“学生在学校的安排与指导下所获得的学习活动和学习经验”,课程体系的构建在职业能力培养中起主导作用.拟转型本科院校对课程体系进行改革,无疑应把职业技能培养放在首位.本科层次的职业教育和高职(专科)层次的职业教育应有所不同,系统理论知识的学习和全面素质的培养不能放弃,但要大幅减少理论课程的比重和课程教材中理论部分内容的比重,而要大幅增加实践课程的比重和课程教材中实践部分内容的比重.课程改革不是要把转型本科院校的课程改得和高职院校一样, 而是要充分体现本科层次职业教育的特点, 着力于提高我国职业教育的整体水平.

    二、信用管理专业教育发展概况

    (一)我国信用管理专业教育体系

    西方发达国家很早就开展了信用管理专业教育,但一般在研究生层次才设信用管理专业,在本科教育阶段只是开设课程. 我国的信用管理专业设置始于2002年,中国人民大学和上海财经大学是最早开设信用管理专业的高校.2005年后, 信用管理专业教育开始快速发展,目前已形成研究生、本科、专科三个层次的大学教育. 提供研究生层次信用管理专业教育的高校包括上海财经大学和西南财经大学. 本科层次的信用管理专业教育是主体,目前,经教育部备案或审批设置信用管理本科专业的高校已达到23所,见表1.除此之外,还有首都经济贸易大学、对外经济贸易大学、湖南大学等高校开设了信用管理方向的本科教育. 设置信用管理专业的专科院校也有不少,如浙江金融职业学院、浙江经贸职业技术学院、广西经贸职业技术学院、温州商贸职业技术学院、辽宁金融职业学院等.在职教育和岗位培训方面,建立了初级、中级、高级信用管理师国家职业资格鉴定制度,但对银行、企业、信用调查与评估机构从业人员的在职培训仍显不足.

    课程改革论文范文结:

    适合不知如何写课程改革方面的相关专业大学硕士和本科毕业论文以及关于课程改革时间论文开题报告范文和相关职称论文写作参考文献资料下载。

    1、新课程改革论文

    2、课程改革论文

    3、课程论文的标准格式

    4、教育改革论文

    5、基础教育课程改革论文

    6、新课程导学期刊

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